The relative rarity (1 to 5 cases for 1,000 births) of neonatal infections secondary to B Streptococcus, the epidemiological characteristics of this germ, especially the unstable vaginal carriage, make it difficult to select a therapeutic approach. Systematic screening of B Streptococcus and the treatment of all carriers or only of high-risk patients, present several practical problems, are complex to implement but the cost/benefit ratio seems however acceptable. Prophylactic intrapartum antibiotic treatment of known carriers of B Streptococcus does not seem debatable any longer, at least the treatment of those presenting other risk factors: premature delivery, premature rupture of the membranes, fever occurring during delivery. Today, the best prophylaxis of neonatal infections seems to be the intrapartum antibiotic treatment (ampicillin) resulting in a spectacular decrease of the frequency of neonatal contamination.
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